MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES social science chapter 6 class 9th



1. Introduction: Production of goods in large quantities from raw materials to mow valuable products is called manufacturing.

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2.Importance of Manufacturing : (i) Backbone of development in general and economic development in particular. Reasons (a) Modernise agriculture and reduce dependence on agriculture (b) Provide jobs in secondary/tertiary sectors (c) Export of manufactured good (d) Makes country prosperous (ii) Relation between agriculture and industry Agro-based industries -provide fertilisers, insecticides, pumps etc.

3. The contribution of Industry to National Economy : (a) Manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 per cent of GDP for the last 2 decades (b) East Asian economies 25 to 35 per cent (c) The National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) set up to achieve the desired growth.

4. Industrial Location : Factors -(i) availability of raw material (ii) labour (iii) capital (iv) power (v) market.

5. Classification of Industries : (i) Agro-based Textile Industry (ii) Mineral based Iron and steel industry (iii) basic (iv) consumer industries (0) small scale (vi) large scale (vii) heavy (viii) light (ix) public sector (3:) private sector (xi) joint sector (xii) cooperative sector.

6. Cotton Textile Industry : (i) Self-reliant and complete (ii) Spinning centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil N Adu but weaving decentralised.

7. Jute Textiles : (1') India largest producer of raw jute and jute goods (ii) Most of the jute mills in West Bengal along the banks of the Hugli river (iii) Challenges (a) competition in the international market (b) synthetic substitutes. .

8. Sugar Industry : (i) Secon lace in the world in production of sugar (ii) Location near the availability of raw mate ' i.e., sugarcane (iii) Challenges (a) seasonal nature (6) old and inefficient meth of production (c) transport delay (d) maximum use of baggage.

9. Mineral-based Industries: Use of minerals and metals as raw materials.

10. Iron and Steel Industries : (1') Basic industry (ii) Index of country’s development

11. Integrated steel plants (iv) Marketing of steel through SAIL.

14. Cement Industry :(i)Important for construction activity (ii) Plants in Gujarat due to suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries.

15. Automobile industry: (i) Manufacturing of trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, etc. (ii) Liberalisation and more demand for vehicles.

16. Information Technology and Electronics Industry : (i) Wide range of (ii) Bangalore as the electronic capital of India (iii) 18 software technology parks,

17. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation : (i) Air pollution (ii) pollution (iii) Thermal pollution (iv) Noise pollution (v) Control of environmental action e.g., treating hot water and affluents (vi) NTPC and environment system.


Q.l. Very Short Answer Questions :
(a) Which industry uses limestone as a raw material?
Ans. Cement.
(b) Which agency markets steel for the public sector plants?
Ans. SAIL.
(c) Which industry uses bauxite as a raw material?
Ans. Aluminium.
(d) Which industry manufactures telephones, computer etc.
Ans. Electronic industry.

(iv) What are basic industries ? Give an example.
(v)Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement?
Ans. (i) Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing. For example, the paper is manufactured from the wand. sugar from sugarcane and steel from iron ore and aluminium from bauxite.
(ii) The physical factors for the location of the industry are the availability of raw material power and favourable climate. However, it is rarely possible to find all these factors available one place. Consequently, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower 
(iii) Three human factors, for the location of an industry are labour, transport and government policies. But the best location depends on the least cost of the transportation cheap and skilled labour and favourable government policies.
(iv) Basic industries are those industries which supply their products or raw materials manufacture other goods e.g., iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting and
(v) The important raw materials used 111 the manufacturing of cement are limestone silica-alumina and gypsum. 

Q3. Write the answers to the following questions in 100 words:
(i) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?
(ii) How do industries pollute the environment?
(iii)Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry?

Ans. (i) (a) Integrated steel plants are large. They handle everything in one complex from putting together raw material to steelmaking, rolling and shaping e.g., Durgapur steel plant. 0n the other hand, mini steel plants are smaller, have electric furnaces, use steel scrap and sponge iron. They have re-rollers that use steel ingots as well. They produce mild and alloy steel of given specifications.
(b) The following problems are being faced by this industry (1) High costs and limited availability of coking coal (2) Lower productivity of labour (3) Irregular supply of energy and (4) Poor infrastructure.
(c) Liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment have led to a rise in the production capacity of the steel industry. Efforts of private entrepreneurs have given a boost to the industry. However, there is a need to allocate resources for research and development to produce steel more competitively.
(ii) Industries have increased pollution and degraded environment. Industries create types of pollution, namely, air, water, thermal and noise. These are explained as given below :

(a) Air pollution: The smoke emitted by the industries pollute air and water badly. (1) Air pollution is caused by the presence of a high proportion of undesirable gases such as sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. 
(2) Airborne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles such as dust, sprays mist and smoke. 
(3) Smoke is emitted by chemical and Paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in big and Small factories that ignore pollution norms. 
(4) The gas leaks can be very hazardous with longterm effects. For example, Bhopal Gas tragedy killed hundreds of people and adversely affected human health, animals, plants etc. as a whole.

(b) Water pollution : (1) The industrial eMuents, both organic and inorganic, are discharged into rivers. They pollute the water. 
(2) Coal dyes, soaps, pesticides, fertilisers are 80me common pollutants of water. 
(3) The main industries that pollute water are paper, pulp, textiles, chemical, petroleum and electroplating. 
(4) These industries let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury pesticides into the water bodies. 
(5) Fly ash, Phospo gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

(c) Thermal pollution
(1) Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories and thermal plants is drained into the rivers and ponds before cooling. 
(2) Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancers, birth defects and miscarriages. 
(3) Dumping of wastes especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packagings, salts and garbage renders the soil useless. 
(4) Rainwater percolates to the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.